LATAs, LECs and IXCs
The PSTN is made up of local exchange carriers (LECs) and interexchange carriers (IXCs) that are governed by LATA boundaries. Although this illustration shows one LEC within one LATA, state regulations may allow multiple LECs within the same LATA. Note that IXC 2 does not have POPs in LATAs 1 and 2 and must have a reselling agreement with IXC 1 in order to gain access to those areas.
Learn more about LATA